Below are Christopher Schwarz’s “12 Rules for Tool Chests” in short form (the full article, as it appeared in the December 2011 issue of Popular Woodworking Magazine, is downloadable at the end.) The chest pictured here is his full-size traditional English tool chest, but the rules apply no matter the chest. (You’ll find instruction on building an English tool chest on Chris’ video “Make a Traditional English Tool Chest” (Popular Woodworking) and in his book “The Anarchist’s Tool Chest” (Lost Art Press).
Rule No. 1: As Long as Your Tool Plus Some
The sizes of woodworking tool chests are fairly standard – between 35″ and 43″. This range allows the chest to hold full-size handsaws, which have a 26″ blade, plus another 5″ of wooden tote. Ripsaws can have an even longer blade, up to 30″. Plus you need to get your hand in there to grab the tote of your longest saw. In addition to long saws, the chest needs to hold a jointer plane. While metal planes top out at about 24″ long, wooden-bodied planes can be as much as 30″ long.
Rule No. 2: Tall Enough to Make a Human Tripod
Short tool chests are difficult to use. They are about 14″ to 16″ high, and when you put them on the floor, it is painful to bend over to fetch a tool. So you put them on top of your workbench or table saw. Now the toolbox is taking up valuable space.
Traditional toolboxes are usually about 22″ to 27″ high. Those heights are ideal for the human form. The rim of the tool chest is below the pivot point of your waist. So you bend over and place your off-hand on the rim of the chest to stabilize yourself as you use your dominant hand to shift trays around. Your off-hand becomes the third leg of a human tripod.
Rule No. 3: A Depth to Match Your Reach
The depth of the chest is usually about the same dimension as its height. This makes sense for a lot of reasons. For one, it looks nice. A square profile is a pleasing form. But it also makes practical sense. A shallow tool chest wouldn’t be as stable, especially with its lid open. A deeper chest would be a pain to use. Imagine a 36″-deep chest. Your arms would have a heck of a time fetching tools in the back.
Rule No. 4: Reduce the Weight; Increase the Joinery
One of the guiding principles of chest construction is to make the chest both lightweight, to make it easier to move, and strong, because the chest might take a beating on a voyage.
Lightweight woods aren’t typically as strong as heavy woods. So here’s what you do: Use a lightweight wood such as pine. But join the corners using a bombproof joint: through-dovetails. Use this lightweight wood with dovetails for every component of the chest, except for the parts that endure friction. Soft and lightweight woods are easily worn away if they rub constantly against other parts.
Rule No. 5: Make a Thick Shell
Let’s talk about the four walls of the chest. That’s where material selection and construction begins. Old woodworking books are specific about the material for the shell: the clearest pine possible, free of knots and sapwood.
Most tool chests have shells made from pine that is between 7⁄8″ and 1″ thick. Early furniture was more likely to have thicker structural components, so a 3⁄4″-thick shell would be unusual.
So why not make the shell out of 1-1⁄2″ material? You could, but dovetailing those corners would be a major pain because your material is so thick – you’d probably have to use a tenon saw to cut the dovetails. And I don’t think the extra-thick material would add meaningful strength. Chests made from 7⁄8″ material stand up just fine for a couple hundred years.
Rule No. 6: The Bottom Should Be Nailed. But Why?
So after all this talk about dovetails, it might seem odd that I recommend tonguing and grooving the chest’s bottom boards and nailing them on. Why not put in a solid bottom that’s captured in a groove?
A single solid-panel bottom will move a lot compared to five or six individual bottom boards, which will share the seasonal expansion and contraction. So if you use a solid-panel bottom you must leave a sizable gap for the panel to swell and shrink in the groove in the shell, which isn’t ideal. You want everything to be as tight as possible.
There are other good reasons to use individual boards secured by nails. If the bottom gets damaged, replacing one cracked board is easier than replacing an entire panel, no matter how the bottom is attached. And replacing one nailed-on board is easier than replacing a board secured in a groove.
Rule No. 7: Skirts, Dust Seals & Miters
The chest’s skirt and dust seal are nearly as prone to damage as the chest’s bottom. They are the first line of defense when the chest is slid onto a truck or rammed by machinery.
The skirt and dust seal (the skirt near the top rim of the shell) should be bulletproof. Simple miters will not do.
Dovetail the corners of your skirt and dust seal. Yes, it’s a pain to fit everything around the shell. But a dovetailed skirt and seal will last forever. Their corners will never open. So the exterior of your chest will look as sturdy in 100 years as the day you built it.
Rule No. 8: Don’t Blow it on the Lid
There are several ways to make a lid. Some work great. Some are temporary.
The best solution is to build the lid as a frame-and-panel assembly. This confines almost all the wood movement to the panel, which floats harmlessly in the middle of the rails and stiles.
Rule No. 9: Divide the Bottom Layer
American tool chests tend to have two things on the bottom layer of the tool chest: planes and saws. Some English chests put the saws in a till affixed to the underside of the chest’s lid, some did not. Some American chests would put a saw or two on the lid at times, but mostly the saws went in a rack near the front of the chest.
The back of the chest is a good place for moulding planes and rabbet planes. Set them on their toes with the wedges facing the inside of the chest. A dividing wall under the wedges will hold the planes upright. The good thing is that most moulding planes are the same length and width. Storing the planes upright in your chest is ideal. This allows you to see their profiles and sizes.
This part of the chest will take up only a small part of the bottom area – about 3-1⁄2″ of space plus the thickness of the wall. So there is lots of space left.
Rule No. 10: Trays
The simplest and best way to divide the upper section is to build trays that slide forward and back. Two or three trays are typical. Chests that have trays that slide left and right are out there, though they are rare. Why? Probably because it makes it difficult to fetch the long tools below.
The trays slide forward and back on runners that are nailed and glued to the sides of the chest. These runners are like shallow steps up the side of the chest so that each tray can be pulled out of the chest should you need to repair it.
Rule No. 11: Sticking Stuff to the Lid & Walls
Don’t forget that the front wall and the lid are good places to store flat stuff. On the lid, some people put a framing square or a few squares. I’ve seen a few handsaws and backsaws hanging on the lid, too. On the front wall of the tool chest you can hang try squares and joinery saws – this is the traditional approach. I simply rest my dovetail and carcase saws against the wall.
Rule No. 12: Paint the Outside
This is the easy part. The outside of a tool chest should be painted. The modern choice is to use milk paint, which is durable and looks better as it ages. We don’t have lead-based paints available, which were the paints of choice in the pre-Industrial world.
On the inside of the chest, I recommend skipping a finish. If you must finish the inside, use shellac, which will cure quickly and won’t leave a nasty oily smell like linseed oil will.
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